Fleet Management Glossary
Acceleration is the rate at which the vehicle speed increases. It is the opposite of deceleration.
A device that measures acceleration.
Also: Active GPS tracker. GPS tracking device that sends data at regular intervals to a central server. This allows real-time track and trace of a vehicle, including geo-fencing.
Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS)
The utilization of automated technology focused on collision avoidance. Sensors and cameras detect nearby obstacles or driver errors.
AI pedestrian detection camera
A specialized camera installed on vehicles for the detection of pedestrians and other VRUs from the front, side, and rear. Alerting drivers automatically to road hazards and widening their field of vision. Deep learning technology enables high detection accuracy.
Alternative fuel vehicles, or AFVs, use combinations of alternative power sources and technologies to reduce the use of propulsion involving crude oil.
Application programming interface (API)
An application-programming interface (API) allows software applications to connect, communicate and exchange information or functionality with each other.
Machines (especially computer systems) simulating the processes of human intelligence. AI performs complex tasks in a way that is similar to how humans solve problems.
The monitoring and keeping track of the exact location, status, position and other relevant information of your company’s assets.
Video-evidence captured by a camera system can be utilized in the training and coaching of drivers. In fact, it can automate the process. By leveraging actual video evidence which is proven it empowers drivers to learn from previous mistakes. Reducing collisions and improving the safety of our roads.
Based on accurate engine-based odometer readings.
Alcohol Interlock Installation Facilitation
A regulation modification that mandates the implementation of a uniform interface for breathalysers (alcoholic interlocks) in automobiles.
Aggressive driving refers to the act of committing traffic offenses that put others' safety and property at risk. In simpler terms, it involves engaging in dangerous behavior without regard for the well-being of others, regardless of speed or frequency.
A Chinese satellite navigation system. Offering increased accuracy over GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo.
Points around a vehicle neither directly nor indirectly visible by the driver.
Completely eliminating or a reduction in blind spots. Enabled through a combination of direct and indirect vision aids (e.g. camera systems).
A wireless connection used for everyday equipment like computers and phones. It only connects over a short distance, and basically replaces cable connections. This makes it especially useful for equipment used outdoors, such as mobile phones and portable navigation devices.
The integration of a fleet management solution with existing business applications. An example of a typical systems integration is connecting a fleet management solution with a workforce management system. This enables optimisation of daily operations by dynamic scheduling of deliveries, resources and loads.
A mechanism that alerts the driver about cyclists who are riding beside or crossing ahead.
A physical record exchanged between a shipper and a carrier to confirm the delivery of goods for transportation. It typically outlines details such as the type of cargo, hazardous materials categorization (if applicable), weight/volume of the cargo, number of pallets/boxes/barrels, and the starting and ending points of the shipment.
When a semi-truck is on the road without a trailer, it indicates that the driver is en route to collect a load but does not have any goods to transport to that destination at the moment. This occurrence is common among drivers who are on their way to pick up a load.
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
BEVs, or Battery Electric Vehicles, are powered solely by the electrical energy stored in their batteries and do not use any other form of energy. As a result, they do not have an exhaust pipe or produce any emissions from it.
When related to vehicles, it involves the release of carbon dioxide (CO₂) into the atmosphere, by the exhaust gases produced by internal combustion engines running on petrol or diesel.
The process of monitoring and recording the fleets carbon footprint CO₂ information about every vehicle and trip. For the purpose of generating a report.
Can be installed to protect passengers in transit vehicles or cargo in trailers.
Coasting uses no fuel, as no fuel is injected into the engine. The vehicle is kept moving while kept in gear without accelerating. It's important for safety reasons to only coast while in gear or with the clutch depressed. Otherwise the drivers ability to control the vehicle is decreased.
Equipping a vehicle with in-cab telematics. Allowing connections to other devices in the car or services, networks and devices outside the car.
The ability to identify your position anywhere on the Earth. Coordinates are usually stated in terms of latitude and longitude. By knowing a places coordinates, you can pinpoint its exact location on a map.
Controller Area Network bus. Vehicle bus standard allowing the following electronic control units to communicate with each other without a central compute; such as engine, antilock braking/ABS, airbags, cruise control, electronic fuel injection, automatic gear box, and battery systems.
Linking information and communication technology (ICT) between people, machines and the Internet of Things (IoT). All to enable the vehicle to share and receive internet access and data with other devices.
CLOCS (Construction Logistics and Community Safety) an industry led movement founded in 2013 to address the construction sector’s overrepresentation in fatal collisions involving vulnerable road users. It provides a best practice national industry standard for its members.
A system created to prevent collisions and minimize the likelihood of accidents is called a collision avoidance system. It is equipped with several sensors and technologies including radar, lasers, GPS, cameras, and artificial intelligence that warn, alert or help drivers avoid potential collisions.
A video camera mounted to a vehicles dashboard or windscreen. Continuously recording the view of the road, traffic, etc. through the windscreen.
A dashboard presents the visualization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI). Presenting the most business-impacting information in an easily understood visualization.
Digital video recorder (DVR)
Made to process and store video data from the a camera system. Designed for installation in vehicles, withstanding factors such as vibrations and unstable power supplies to provide continuous video recording without the risk of failure.
Direct vision is what the driver can see through windows without using mirrors or cameras.
Devices for indirect vision
Devices able to present information about the indirect field of vision to the driver. The surrounding area adjacent to the vehicle which cannot be observed by direct vision. Devices used to eliminate indirect vision (blind spots) include conventional mirrors, camera monitors or other technologies such as sensors.
First Notice of Loss, FNOL is the initial report made to an insurer detailing the damage, loss and theft of an asset. It is the first step to making an insurance claim. FNOL is crucial to deciding if a claim has been made appropriately and helps to assess the amount a valid claim is worth. ‘electronic First Notice Of Loss’ (eFNOL) is an automated version of the initial report that the insurer receives following an auto incident.
The automatic and digital collection of data related to speed, distance and driving time, by an in-vehicle device.
In-cab audio alerts when signs of drowsiness, distraction, smartphone usage, and smoking are detected to prevent accidents and risky or illegal behaviors.
An indication of how a driver is driving a vehicle. Determined by assessing; speed, braking, coasting, gear shifting, idling, and steering. Assessing driving behavior is important to business performance as it influences the following; fuel costs, maintenance, and insurance premiums. All culminating to impact the total cost of vehicle ownership.
Occurs when a smart fleet management system, records a harsh driving event, which can include; braking, cornering and steering and sudden acceleration or deceleration, all of which can lead to accidents.
The consistent behavioral patterns exhibited by a driver. This relates to how attentive and safely a driver is on the road.
Driver monitoring system (DMS)
Using cameras integrated into a smart connected platform to simultaneously capture and process video footage of the driver and occupants of the vehicle and the prevailing road conditions ahead.
Driver welfare system (DWS)
The utilization of cutting edge technology to detect risks and alert drivers and managers to mitigate said risks. Technologies include: cameras, sensors, in-cab monitors and artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning.
Distraction Recognition and Prevention
It is a safety warning system with the ability to detect the level of attention a driver is devoting to a situation and notify them if deemed necessary.
A term used when a truck driver is hauling an empty trailer. This is often done because it can be difficult to find a new load quickly, and so the driver may need to deadhead to get to the next available load.
A regular route driver is a driver or carrier who is responsible for transporting cargo along predetermined routes. These drivers typically have a set schedule, allowing them to be at home on a regular basis.
Direct Vision Standard is a system evaluating a driver's visibility from the driver's seat of a heavy good vehicle.
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Meeting the standards set in various areas of oversight established by the Department of Transportation (DOT) is what is referred to as DOT compliance. Failure to comply with any of the regulations could result in serious consequences, and commercial motor carriers are subject to regular monitoring to ensure compliance.
Eco-driving styles involve eliminating driving habits that impact fuel consumption negatively (harsh braking / steering, aggressive accelaration etc). and the consequential impact on the environment. Improve driving styles, reduce mileage and increases fuel efficiency to reduce environmental, safety and congestion impacts.
Electronic (digital) first notice of loss involves automatically notifying your insurance provider of an incident or accident. To enable the automatic notification a smart fleet management system will auto-generate the first report and send it and supporting evidence to your insurer.
A vehicle that utilizes a battery instead of a gasoline tank, and an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine.
The truck's flashing brake light (or a comparable indicator) notifies drivers behind it that the truck is rapidly decelerating or braking with force.
Event (Accident) Data Recorder
An accident data recorder, commonly known as a "black box".
Electronic logging device (ELD)
The electronic logging device, which is also known as ELD, is a technology designed for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers to automatically keep track of their driving time and record their hours of service (HOS), while also gathering data on the vehicle's engine, movement, and distance traveled.
Field service management
The management of resources within the fleet using tools (fleet management system) to manage things like scheduling, work orders, analytics, reporting and customer expectations.
First Notice of Loss (FNOL)
The initial report made to an insurance provider following an incident / accident resulting in the loss, theft, or damage of an insured asset (vehicle). Typically FNOL is the first step in the formal claims process lifecycle.
The procedures put in place within the fleet to keep vehicles in the highest working order.
The processes and systems used by a fleet operator to help manage and simplify the management of a fleet of vehicles, such as cars, vans, trucks and buses.
Leveraging a combination of vehicle-based technologies and Software as a Service (SaaS), delivering business impactful insights related to; vehicle performance, fuel consumption, driver safety, risk management and overall fleet efficiency.
The person responsible for managing both the vehicles and drivers.
Fleet operating costs
The costs to keep the fleet operation working. Keeping operating costs stable and low as possible is important to ensure the success of the operation.
The benefits gained through the use of a fleet management system, that cause the fleet to operate more efficiently. Fleet optimization involves the utilization of actionable insights that are gained from detailed reports generated by the data processed by the fleet management system. Insights that lead to an improvement in the operation.
The steps taken by a fleet to reduce the risks that can affect the operation negatively. By establishing a fleet risk management strategy fleets will ensures not only the safety and efficiency of the operation, but also help avoid costly fines.
The ability to track and trace each individual vehicle that makes up the fleet. See the location, movements, status and behavior of the fleet.
FORS (Fleet Operator Recognition Scheme) is a voluntary accreditation scheme. Raising the level of quality within fleet operations aiming to provide assurance that an operation is being run safely, efficiently and in an environmentally sound manner to potential customers. Fleets can be awarded at bronze, silver and gold levels.
The metric of 1/100 km or MPG (miles per gallon), standardizes and enables the comparison of a vehicles fuel consumption and efficiency.
Relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed.
Monitoring and tracking the consumption of fuel by the vehicles within the fleet. Aiming to reduce fuel costs and improve driving behavior.
Effective fleet compliance involves meeting or exceeding the standards and regulations established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) in the United States. It serves as an essential objective for fleet management since it not only prevents audits and penalties but also ensures the safety of vehicles and drivers.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)
The United States Department of Transportation houses the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), an agency responsible for regulating the trucking industry. The agency's core objective is to minimize large truck and bus accidents, injuries, and fatalities.
The European global satellite-based navigation system.
A virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area. Geofences can be dynamically generated or match a predefined set of boundaries.
Russia’s Global'naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS). An alternative to Global Positioning System. The second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) a constellation of satellites providing signals from space transmitting positioning and timing data to GNSS receivers.
A U.S. owned, utility providing positioning and navigation information.
GPS tracking device
A tracking device installed in vehicles that uses GPS technology.
GPS vehicle tracking
A tracking device installed in vehicles that uses GPS technology, to ascertain the vehicles location and navigation at all times.
Greenhouse gases (GHG)
A greenhouse gas (GHG) is any gas in the atmosphere absorbing and re-emitting heat, making the planet's atmosphere warmer than it would be. The main GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ozone.
Gross vehicle weight
The total weight of the vehicle, a very important piece of information for fleet operators to know about their large trucks, vans, haulier trailers and other large vehicles to ensure safety on the road.
General Safety Regulation (GSR)
Regulation (EC) No. 661/2009, also known as the General Safety Regulation or GSR for short, pertains to the type of approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles, their trailers, and the systems, components, and separate technical units intended for them.
Harsh event detection
The detection of unsafe driving utilizing the accelerometer and g-sensor (for motion detection), and GPS tracking of the telematics device.
Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV)
Heavy goods vehicle (HGV) – a goods vehicle that has a gross weight equal to or exceeding 3.5 tonnes.
Hours of Service (HOS)
Regulations set out to define the amount of hours of operation that a driver can safely work. Set out by relevant traffic bodies.
Running the engine without the vehicle actually moving. Commonly occurs when waiting for traffic lights to change.
The time that the engine is running when the vehicle isn't moving (stuck in traffic) or moving extremely slowly.
A screen to display a live-view of footage being captured by cameras mounted to the vehicle. Benefiting the driver by eliminating blind-spot, meaning 360-degree vision of the road. Ensuring drivers have visibility around the vehicle via the in-cab monitor alerting them early to vulnerable road users and other road hazards.
An independent witness is a third party not involved in the accident who witnessed how the accident happened. An independent witness is deemed more credible to a jury as they have no stake in the outcome. In the case of road accidents a camera system is deemed an independent witness.
What is visible to a driver with the aid of mirrors or cameras, rather than the vehicle windows.
Internet of Things (IoT)
A network of physical objects—“things”—embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies to connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the internet.
Internet of Vehicles (IoV)
A part of the Internet of Things (IoT), IoV is a wireless network of intelligent vehicles that are connected to Internet and that are communicating according to agreed protocols.
The international standard for information security. Specifying an information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27001 helps organisations manage their information security by addressing people, processes, and technology.
It is a system that monitors vehicle speed in real-time and notifies drivers if they exceed the speed limit, with the intention of motivating them to reduce their speed.
An internal combustion engine works by burning fuel, such as petrol, oil, or other types of fuel mixed with air within the engine, which then produces hot gases that expand to drive a piston or perform other mechanical tasks.
A geographic coordinate specifying the north-south positioning of a point on Earth.
Light commercial vehicle (LCV)
Vehicles used in a commercial setting that don't exceed 3500KG are classified as a light commercial vehicle (LCV). Including vehicles such as; vans, pick-up trucks and three-wheelers.
A book to record the type of trips taken by a vehicle - be it business or private. Recorded for tax purposes.
A geographic coordinate specifying the east-west positioning of a point on Earth.
A subfield of artificial intelligence (AI), which is the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.
Miles per gallon (MPG)
Commonly used measurement outlining fuel economy - the average number of miles a vehicle can drive on a gallon of fuel. The higher the MPG, the more economically friendly the vehicle is.
Before starting to drive or while driving at a slow speed, a system alerts the driver of any vulnerable road users present in front of the vehicle.
The US-owned and now known as the Global Positioning System (GPS). Providing positioning, timing, and navigation signals.
A balance between the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) produced, and the amount removed from the atmosphere. Reaching net Zero means the amount we add (GHG) is no more than the amount taken away.
In relation to the performance of a camera system night vision is the camera systems ability to maintain a quality image that is legible. High Dynamic Range (HDR) and infrared LED ensure the a quality image.
The NEDC, also known as the MVEG cycle, is a driving cycle primarily used to evaluate the fuel economy and emission levels of passenger cars (excluding light trucks and commercial vehicles). It was last updated in 1997.
OBD-II / OBD2
On-Board Diagnostics is a vehicle’s self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems were designed to monitor engine performance, and provide early warnings of malfunctions. With quick and simple retrieval of vital automobile diagnostics information from the OBD system using simple scanning tools, it assists in the service and repair of vehicles. The OBD-II port is commonly found below the steering wheel.
Measures the distance traveled by a wheeled vehicle.
Pedestrian detection camera
AI-enabled cameras placed in locations that would otherwise be invisible to the driver. Detecting pedestrians and other vehicles the driver would not be able to see via their mirrors.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
A combination of gasoline and electric as a power source. Utilizing a battery, an electric motor, a gasoline tank, and an internal combustion engine.
Revolutions per minute (RPM)
The measurement of the rotational speed of a mechanical component, such as engine speed.
The planning of a route of a commercial vehicle, taking into account location, driving time and distance. The purpose of route optimization is to ensure the most efficient use of the drivers time, to maximize the return on investment.
Drivers can have a view of objects and people located behind the truck with the aid of technology like cameras and sensors.
The time between each service. Also an indicator of the frequency at which a vehicle should be serviced.
Sideguards (side under-run protection)
Lateral guards fitted between vehicle axles to minimize the severity of side under-run collisions.
Smart camera system
Advancing beyond the use of static cameras, but using them alongside sensors, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and digital cloud storage. All to ensure real time and actionable insights that lead to business changing outcomes.
Software as a service (SaaS)
The delivery of an application over the Internet—as a service, this is instead of installing and maintaining software, you simply access it via the Internet. This reduces the complexity of use.
When the GPS tracker doesn't see any movement of a vehicle. A standstill ends when the vehicle begins to move again and the GPS tracker begins to change its position again.
Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi)
Defines and promotes for the implementation of the most effective methods for reducing emissions and achieving net-zero targets, in accordance with scientific principles related to climate science.
Tachographs record the driving times, breaks, and rest periods of individual drivers. Vehicle speed, distance traveled, and other related metrics are also logged. They are used to ensure compliance with regulations related to drivers working hours.
Telematics is a combination of both telecommunications and informatics. But more often related to vehicles (vehicles telematics) which vehicle location information is used by the business/fleet manager to better manage the workforce.
Using GPS technology to monitor the position, status and driving behavior of your fleet’s trucks.
Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
The system tracks the tire pressure and notifies the driver of any loss of pressure as it occurs in real-time.
Usage based insurance (UBI)
Insurance premium depends on vehicle type, distance traveled, location, and driving behavior. Opting for UBI encourages drivers to improve their driving behavior, therefore decreasing road accidents and reducing the number of insurance claims. Also known as PAYD (pay as you drive) or PHYD (pay how you drive).
Vehicle manoeuvring warnings
Audible warnings to alert other road users to a left turning, right turning, or reversing vehicle. An extra precaution to warn the driver and the vulnerable road users (VRUs) who might be in a blind spot.
When a vehicle can't be used to fulfil its duties within the operation. As a consequence for a number of reasons, but most often because of malfunction or damage to the vehicle that requires repairs or part replacements.
The side of the vehicle nearest to the kerb in the forward parked/driving condition.
The side of the vehicle furthest from the kerb in the forward parked/driving condition.
Vehicle safety equipment
Equipment which assists in eliminating blind spots. Enpowering the driver with the ability to see or detect other road users or obstacles. This reduces the incidence and severity of collisions, particularly with vulnerable road users (VRUs). Vehicle safety equipment can be fitted by vehicle manufacturers, dealers or retrofitted by 3rd party providers such as CameraMatics.
The historic positions, movements, and other events related to a vehicle.
Real-time information related to a vehicle outlining its position, movement, and other events.
Vehicle tracking device
GPS technology installed / plugged into a vehicle providing real-time track and trace of the vehicle's movements.
Vehicle tracking system
A device that can be installed / plugged into a vehicle that is equipped with GNSS technology (GPS). Allowing real-time track and trace of the vehicle's movements.
The measurement of vehicle performance against its profitability.
The combination of telematics data with high-definition video footage recorded by a camera system. Empowers fleets to better understand driver behavior and provide personalized driver coaching. The continued advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities are providing increased visibility, context behind events, and the ability to automate coaching programs.
A strategy aiming to by 2050 completely eliminate (reach zero) serious road injuries and deaths.
Software that communicates to the user audibly and may respond to spoken commands. It can be used by the driver to literally talk to a smartphone and to have messages read aloud, establishing hands-free interaction with a mobile device.
Vulnerable road user (VRU)
Individuals who are more at risk for serious injury or death if they are involved in a traffic crash, including (but are not limited to) pedestrians, cyclists, scooters, and other road users and pedestrians.
Vulnerable road user detection system
VRU AI detection systems give drivers and pedestrians more reaction time and improved control, awareness, and confidence. Drivers gain 360-degree visibility through camera systems and are warned of VRUs through audible alerts that also sound for pedestrian VRUs.
Prominent signage is used to warn vulnerable road users (VRUs) to not get too close to vehicles when laying idle (not parked) or in motion.
The concept of zero-emissions involves transitioning to sustainable practices worldwide, which includes utilizing technology that generates minimal or no greenhouse gas emissions. This movement towards sustainability includes the use of electric vehicles (EVs) and other clean technologies.